Primary materials

Knoll, E and Nies, J. (ed.) War Crimes and the American Conscience: Proceedings of the Congressional Conference on War and National Responsibility (Holt McDougal, 1970)

Statement by Prime Minister Olof Palme in the Plenary Meeting of the UN Conference on the Human Environment, 6 June 1972 <> and video footage <> accessed 13 November 2021

Falk, R. 'Environmental Warfare and Ecocide - Facts, Appraisal and Proposals' (Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 1973 4:80) <> accessed 11 November 2021 [registration required]

Whitaker, B. Revised and Updated Report on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. 2 July 1985) <> accessed 18 November 2021

Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind 1991 Article 26 <> accessed 13 November 2021

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court <> accessed 9 November 2021

Kyoto Protocol (United Nations, 2008) <> accessed 16 November 2021

Paris Agreement (United Nations, 2015) <> accessed 16 November 2021

Written Statement of the Republic of Maldives by Mr Ahmed Saleem, Member of Parliament, Chair, Standing Committee on Climate Change and Environment,
18th Session of the Assembly of State Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC, 3 December 2019 <> accessed 15 November 2021

Statement by H. E. John H. Licht, Ambassador of the Republic of Vanuatu. 18th Session of the Assembly of State Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC, 2-7 December 2019 <> accessed 15 November 2021

Independent Expert Panel for the Legal Definition of Ecocide: Commentary and Core Text (Stop Ecocide Foundation, June 2021) <> accessed 18 November 2021

COP26: The Negotiations Explained (UK Government, 2021) <> accessed 18 November 2021


Criminal Code of the Republic of Armenia 2003 <> accessed 11 November 2021

Criminal Code of Belarus 1999 [no English translation]

Comprehensive Organic Criminal Code of Ecuador 2014 [no English translation]

Criminal Code of Georgia 1999<> accessed 16 November 2021

Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2014 <> accessed 16 November 2021

Criminal Code of the Kyrgyz Republic 1997 <> accessed 16 November 2021

Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova 2002 <> accessed 18 November 2021

Russian Federation
Criminal Code of the Russian Federation 1996 <> accessed 11 November 2021

Criminal Code of the Republic of Tajikistan 1998 <> accessed 16 November 2021

Criminal Code of Ukraine 2001 <> accessed 11 November 2021

Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan 1994 <> accessed 16 November 2021

Vietnam Penal Code 1990 <> accessed 16 November 2021

secondary materials


Hellman, J. 'The Fifth Crime Under International Criminal Law: Ecocide?' in Regulating Corporate Criminal Liability edited by Dominik Brodowski et al. (Springer, 2014) pp. 273-281

Higgins, P. Eradicating Ecocide (Shepheard-Walwyn, 2010)

South, N. and Brisman, A. (ed.) Routledge International Handbook of Green Criminology (Routledge, 2020)

Wallace-Wells, D. The Uninhabitable Earth: A Story of the Future (Penguin, 2019)

Whyte, D. Ecocide: Kill the Corporation Before it Kills Us (Manchester University Press, 2020)

Ziegler, D. The Invention of Ecocide: Agent Orange, Vietnam, and the Scientists Who Changed the Way We Think About the Environment (University of Georgia Press, 2011)

articles & discussion

Albero, H. 'Ecocide: Why Establishing a New International Crime Would Be a Step Towards Interspecies Justice' (The Conversation, 29 June 2021) <> accessed 16 November 2021

Aldson, F. 'Is it Time for a Crime of Ecocide?' (UK Human Rights Blog, 2 June 2011) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Bourke, I. 'Philippe Sands on Why "Ecocide" Should Be a Crime' (New Statesman, 16 February 2021) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Coates, P. 'War on Terra: Weaponizing the Environment' (Times Literary Supplement, 14 May 2021)

Coulon, A. 'How to Make Ecocide an International Crime' (Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, 7 January 2021) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Gauger, A. et al. 'The Ecocide Project: Ecocide is the Missing 5th Crime Against Peace' (School of Advanced Study, 2012) <> accessed 18 November 2021

Gupta, S. 'The Proposed Definition of "Ecocide": An Attempt to Constitute Fifth International Crime' (JURIST, 15 July 2021) <> accessed 16 November 2021

Higgins, P. 'Eradicating Ecocide: Laws and Governance to Prevent the Destruction of Our Planet' (London School of Economics, 25 May 2011) <> accessed 15 November 2021

Higgins, P. and Short, D. 'Protecting the Planet: A Proposal for a Law of Ecocide' (Crime, Law and Social Change, 2013 59(3)) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Killean, R. 'From Ecocide to Eco-Sensitivity: "Greening" Reparations at the International Criminal Court' (International Journal of Human Rights, 2021 25(2) pp. 323-357)

Lindgren, T. 'Ecocide, Genocide and the Disregard of Alternative Life-Systems' (International Journal of Human Rights, 2018 22(4) pp. 525–549)

Mehta, J. 'Ecocide: A Crime Against the Planet' (Journal of the Law Society of Scotland, 2021 66(10) pp. 24-25) <> accessed 15 November 2021

Mehta, J. 'How Do We Protect the Planet From Destruction? Make "Ecocide" a Crime' (The Independent, 7 July 2021) <> accessed 18 November 2021

Merz, P. 'Ecocide: Prisca Merz Argues it is Now Time to Act Against the Large-Scale Damage or Destruction of Ecosystems' (Socialist Lawyer, October 2014) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Quenivet, N. 'The Crime of Ecocide' (Environmental Liability, Law, Practice and Policy, 2019 25(5-6) p. 171-175)

Siddique, H. 'Legal Experts Worldwide Draw Up "Historic" Definition of Ecocide' (The Guardian, 22 June 2021) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Skoulding, L. 'What is Ecocide and How Does it Affect Our Rights?' (Each Other, 4 November 2021) <> accessed 13 November 2021

Wijdekop, F. 'Against Ecocide: Legal Protection for Earth' (Great Transition Initiative, August 2016) <> accessed 18 November 2021

Yeo, S. 'Ecocide: Should Killing Nature Be a Crime?' (BBC, 6 November 2020) <> accessed 15 November 2021


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